4th Annual Conference on Biomaterials
Prague, Czech Republic
Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
Title: How physical and chemical properties of the biomaterial surfaces govern the cell behavior– a review
Biography: Lucie Bacakova
Physical and chemical properties of the biomaterial surface, particularly its wettability, roughness and topography, mechanical properties and electrical activity, play a decisive role in the adhesion, growth and differentiation of cells. Earlier studies revealed that the adhesion and growth of cells is optimum on materials with moderate wettability, because on these surfaces, the adhesion-mediating proteins are adsorbed in almost physiological conformation, and are well-recognized by the cell adhesion receptors . As for the surface roughness and topography, a great attention has been paid to nanostructured surfaces. These surfaces mimic the Nano architecture of the native extracellular matrix and promote the cell adhesion and growth better than the conventional flat surfaces . Nano fibrous synthetic polymeric scaffolds proved as good substrates for adhesion and growth of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, especially after coating with nanostructures of fibrin and collagen . After reinforcement with diamond or hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, these scaffolds improved the colonization with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells or human osteoblast-like cells . A higher biomaterial stiffness induced osteogenic cell differentiation, while softer substrates directed the cells towards myogenic or neurogenic phenotype . Electrical activity of biomaterials is another favorable factor influencing the cell behavior. In our earlier performed on thermally oxidized TiNb and Ti, positive charge enhanced proliferation of human osteoblast-like cells, while the negative charge enhanced their osteogenic differentiation . The adhesion, growth and osteogenic cell differentiation was also improved on ferroelectric substrates, such as LiNbO3 or BaTiO3. Therefore, modulation of physical and chemical properties of biomaterials is an effective tool for inducing the desired behavior of cells in construction of body implants and in tissue engineering.